|VOL 1||8 NOVEMBER 1941||No. XXIII|
The staff of the "COUGAR SCREAM" dedicates this weeks columns to the United States Marines serving on board, and those stationed on the various ships and shore stations of the service.
Fifes and drums were calling men to the colors in 1775. Men to man our fighting frigates were among the crying needs of the hour, and there was an urgent call for Marines.
One by one a little fleet of fighting craft began to assemble on the Delaware River at Philadelphia. On November 10, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved "That two battalions of Marines be raised," and that date has since been observed as the Marines' birthday.
Those Continental Marines etched their names deeply in the records of the Revolution. They engaged in numerous land and sea battles and played a valiant part in the winning of our independence.
Their first expedition took them to the Bahamas, and in subsequent years there is hardly a spot on the globe where the sea soldiers have not been landed while, engaged in some mission for Uncle Sam.
Marines have fought in all the big and little wars of our country. Stephen Decatur witnessed their valor at Tripoli. They shared in Dewey's victory at Manila Bay, aided in the destruction of the Spanish Fleet in Cuba, and shed their blood on the battlefields of France.
During the 200 or more landings they have made on foreign soil, they carried Old Glory to Korea, Sumatra, Samoa, China, the Philippines sad the far-off Fiji Islands.
The old-time marine went into battle armed with a musket, pike, or cutlass. His modern prototype is equipped with practically every conceivable military weapon used on land or sea, from machine and anti-aircraft guns to fighting planes and amphibious tractors.
During the more than eight score years since they were first organized, the U. S. Marines have built up a tradition for valor unexcelled by any fighting unit anywhere. There will be very little ceremony to note their passing of another milestone along the road they have followed so faithfully in the service of their country.
Daring death and danger is an old story to the U. S. Marines, who have landed on foreign soil at least 200 times on errands for Uncle Sam.
They claim to have unfurled their flag "to every breeze from dawn to setting sun," and that is no idle boast. Often their landings were accompanied by enough thrills to last a lifetime.
Such a landing was made at Quallah Battoo in Sumatra in 1832 for the purpose of bringing to terms some Malay pirates who had robbed an American ship and murdered some of the crew.
Three Forces Formed--In the early morning a landing party of bluejackets and marines rowed ashore and, dividing their forces into three parties, one group attacked the first stronghold, blowing up the stockade gate and meeting the Malays in hand-to-hand conflict. The enemy fought to the death.
One by one three other fortresses were captured during the five hours of bitter fighting required to bring the natives to terms. The affair ended when a delegation of native chiefs made a plea for peace.
Even more dramatic was the landing made by bluejackets and marines in Korea soon after the Civil War, when some American ships in the Salee River had been treacherously fired upon by natives.
Many Forts Captured - Fort after fort was captured by the hard-driving naval men until there remained but one obstacle to the final defeat of the enemy and complete success. Crowning a conical hill, one hundred and fifty feet-from the bottom- of a- ravine, towered the walls of a citadel. Here the Koreans made a last stand.
Marines and bluejackets scaled the steep slope and as they approached the parapet the enemy abandoned his ancient firearms for clubs and knives; With a desperation born of futility, they even rained rocks down on the attacking Americans.
Once inside the fortress, cutlasses, spears, matchlocks and-every conceivable weapon of the time were used in the last series of hand-to-hand encounters. The Koreans resisted to the end. Only twenty natives survived.
Barrier Seizure Outstanding - For sheer bravado; however, no feat in the annals of the Marine Corps landings equals the seizure of Barrier Forts near Canton, China, in 1856.
A naval cutter displaying our flag had been fired upon without cause, and two warships -of the small American squadron in those waters began a bombardment of the heavily armed and manned forts as a prelude to the assault which followed.
Only reckless courage could have prompted the storming and holding of one fortress against repeated attacks by more than four thousand Orientals, and the eventual capture of three other strongly-built forts which commanded the river approach to Canton.
Equally dramatic landings have. been made by the Marines in Samoa, Formosa, the Fiji Islands and a dozen other out-of-the-way places of the world. At the turn of the present century, they landed from an American warship and traveled overland to meet King Menelik of Ethiopia.
1. Marines are trained in all the duties of a soldier. and many of the duties of a sailor. They are what Kipling called "Soldier and sailor, too."
2. Their motto is "Semper Fidelis," or "Always Faithful." Their emblem is the Globe, Eagle and Anchor, worn as a distinguishing device on the cap or collar or emblazoned on the standards of the Corps.
3. The pay of a Marine is the same as a soldier in any respective grade. He is clothed in either blue, white, forestry green, or khaki uniform depending on the duty he is required to perform or the season of the year.
4. Marines ashore perform duty as infantrymen, artillerymen, machine gunners, radio operators, drivers of motor vehicles and motorized equipment, artisans, and, occasionally, as mounted infantry They also guard naval property, and are especially trained for Prompt mobilization and movement to any point or for any service they may be called upon to perform.
5. In the Fleet they man the secondary batteries, or torpedo defense guns, and the antiaircraft guns, perform guard duties, and, when landing operations are necessary, are first ashore when trouble threatens.
6. Marines are aviators, too, and when assigned to this duty are trained as airplane mechanics, motor experts, pilots, observers, bombers, riggers, or signalmen, and maintain their own flying fields.
7. Besides the numerous garrisons on the seaboard of the United States, Marines are stationed in the Philippines, Guam, the Hawaiian Islands, and China, guarding American interests and cooperating with the Navy.
8. The Marine is usually detailed for not more than two years at sea or in a foreign country, in order that his enlistment will offer change and variety.
9. The Marine Corps Institute gives free instruction through the correspondence method. Every Marine, if he so chooses, may learn some trade, art or science. There is a choice of more than fifty subjects.
10. Many of the officers of the Corps have risen from the-ranks. Promotion depends almost entirely upon the ability of the Marine to meet the requirements of the rank to which he aspires.
11. The strength of the Marine Corps is fixed by law at 20% of the strength of the Navy, which is determined by the Congress in accordance with the defense needs of the nation.
12. The Corps is famous for its highly skilled rifle and pistol shots, who have won scores of trophies, The Marine Corps team defeated picked teams, both civilian and military, and won the team championship of the U. S. A. fifteen times out of the thirty-one times competitions have been held.
13. The Marine Corps traces its origin back to 1775; when the Corps was first organized by an act of the Continental Congress.
14. Marines fought their first important fight in the Bahamas in- 1776,when they helped storm the forts at New Providence and seized the ammunition and supplies stored there.
15. Fought in many sea actions of the Revolution and lost 49 killed and wounded in the battle between John Paul Jones' frigate Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis in 1779. They fought under Washington at Trenton and Princeton.
16. Fought Mediterranean Pirates in 1805.
17. In the War of 1812 they took part in battles on Lake Champlain and Lake Erie; were with Winder at Bladensburg, and with General Jackson at New Orleans.
18. Began a campaign against pirates in the West Indies in 1821 that freed the Caribbean of the freebooters who preyed on commerce.
19. Volunteered to fight Creek and Seminole Indians in Georgia and Florida in 1836-37, and while in Florida fought side by side with the Army in many pitched battles against the Indians.
20. Fought under General Scott in the war with Mexico, 1848-48; helped to storm and capture the citadel at Chapultepec, the decisive engagement of the war.
21. Visited Japan .with Commodore Perry in 1854, when the treaty was signed that opened that country to the commerce of the world.
22. Under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee, Marines captured John Brown at Harper's Ferry in 1859.
23. At the outbreak of the Civil War Marines took part in engagements at Fort Sumter, Fort Washington, the Battle of Bull Run and all the engagements fought along the Atlantic Coast.
24. They were under Farragut's command in the sea fights of Mobile Bay and New Orleans and engaged in the night attack on Fort Sumter, and in the battle between the Alabama and the Kearsage. Marines of the Wyoming stormed the Japanese forts at Shimonoseki, Japan.
25. When Charleston was abandoned in 1864 seven companies of Marines manned the battery of 15 guns. They also participated in the attack on Fort Fisher.
26. They were landed in an expedition against the savages in Formosa in 1867 and led the advance against the barrier forts in Korea in 1871.
27. During the disturbances in Egypt in 1862 a detachment of Marines was landed with the British forces at Alexandria for the purpose of preserving order and preventing pilage.
28. Two battalions went to Panama in 1885 to preserve order and to keep transportation open across the Isthmus. Since then a number of battalions have landed at Panama. Marines were the only American troops on the Isthmus when the United States took over control of the Isthmus and pushed the Canal through to completion.
29. During the Revolution in Hawaii in 1893, Marines were landed at Honolulu to protect American interests and to guard the lives and property of American citizens, and saw spirted action
30. Landing in Cuba in 1898, one battalion of Marines held the naval base at Guantanamo Bay against 6,000 Spaniards. They also distinguished themselves at the battle of Santiago, and with Dewey at Manila.
31. Battalion of Marines landed on the island of Samar in the Philippines in 1901, pacified it, and marched through that hostile country, the first white troops to accomplish that feat.
32. Four battalions sent to Cuba in 1906 to help pacify Cuban revolutionists, the Marines remaining in the country for nearly two years.
33. Battalions of Marines and sailors landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico, in April 1914, capturing that port in a brilliant campaign.
34. To preserve stability of government, Marines were landed in Haiti in 1915, completing their mission in that republic in 1934.
35. Marines were also landed in Santo Domingo in 1916, but were withdrawn from that country in 1924, following the establishment of an orderly government.
36. American's first shot in the World Way was fired by a U. S. Marine rifleman who fired a shot across the bow of a German cutter in the harbor of Guam on the morning of April 6, 1917.
37. On June 27, 1917, a little over two months after the United States entered the World War, Marines were landed in France as a part of America's first contingent of troops.
38. At the outbreak of the war the total strength of the Marine Corps was 13,725. Within a year more than that number of Marines had been transported
39. The Fourth Brigade of Marines, which was a part of the famous Second Division, was comprised of the Fifth and Sixth Regiments of Marines and the Sixth Machine Gun Battalion.
40. This brigade fought in five major operations overseas; Aisne Defensive (including the action at Belleau Wood); Aisne-llbarne Offensive (Soissons); St. Mihiel, Offensive; the Champagne (Battle Of Blanc Mont Ridge); Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
41. The Fourth Brigade of Marines suffered approximately 12,000 casualties. More than 2,400 were killed or died of wounds.
42. The French officially renamed Belleau Wood "Bois de Ia Brigade de Marine," in honor of the Marines who wrested it from German hands in June 1918, and barred their advance on Paris.
43. The Second Division, of which the Fourth Brigade of Marines was a part, captured 12,026 prisoners, or about one-fifth- of the total number of prisoners captured by the A.E.F.
44. The French Army cited the Marine units no less than six times in Army orders: The Fourth Brigade as a whole once; the Sixth Machine Gun Battalion twice; and the Fifth and Sixth Regiments, three times. For this they were awarded the famous French Fourragere in the colors of the Crier de Guerre, one of the most highly prized decorations awarded to the Americans in France
45. At the close of the war individual Marines had been awarded over 1,668 decorations, including American, British, French, Italian, Belgian, Poruguese Montenegrin, Chinese and Japanese medals. To this number others were added since the signing of the armistice.
46. In August 1922, a detachment of U. S. Marines was assigned to duty at the Brazilian Centennial Exposition, held at Rio de Janeiro, as an evidence of the cordial relations existing between the Brazilian and American Governments.
47. Helped queIl the Boxer uprising in China in 1900, and have guarded the American Embassy at Pieping since 1905. Today detachments of Marines are guarding American lives and property in Shanghai, or are serving aboard naval vessels patrolling Chinese waters.
48. At the request of the Post Office Department in 1921, detachments of Marines were assigned the task of guarding the mails, remaining on this duty for a period of five months. Late in 1926, they were again assigned to this special service, and on each occasion guarded the mails with skill and efficiency.
49. Disturbances in Nicaragua required the intervention of Marines in 1909, 1910 and 1912. For thirteen years the country remained at peace, while a few Marines guarded the American Legation at Managua, the capital, withdrawing from the country in 1925. Early in 1927 it again became necessary to send Marines to Nicaragua, where settled conditions permitted their withdrawal in 1933.
50. This is the story of the Corps in a nutshell. Much of its history is yet to be written.
The sort of thing every man dreams about but rarely experiences took place on Wednesday night at the Fleisher Auditorium on Broad Street. The occasion was a dance given under the auspices of the Hospitality Center and was arranged by Mrs. Frances Strawbridge, jr., chairman of the Recreation Committee of the Philadelphia Council of Defense. Bill McNulty's grand orchestra from the YMCA played almost continuously throughout the evening, and entertainment was provided by a featured-soloist.
The thing that just broke the hearts of the hundred or so men who attended was their inability to cope with the three hundred really lovely girls who had come for the sole purpose of making the boys of the WASHINGTON forget their troubles for an evening of fun. The girls actually had to do the cutting, and it was tragic to see the frustrated look on many a maiden's face because she couldn't find a man Even more tragic was the fact that many of the men had brought their wives, who tried in vain to keep two turns and a half hitch around their bewildered swains.
Their efforts were further thwarted by the occasional John Paul Jones and La Conga which served to turn strangers into one big happy family. CMAA Jack Scarborough directed the evolutions, and Mr. and Mrs. W.D. Rainbow of the "PA" Division demonstrated the proper technique. Among those we spotted in the center of things were CFC and Mrs. Demon of the "F" Division, Ensigns Quinn and Maslanka, and Mr. and Mrs. W.J. Boo of the "C" Division.
Refreshments in the form of beer, sandwiches, coco cola pretzels, etc., were in abundance throughout the evening, and an hour after the dance was officially over they still held out for an appreciative crowd who refused to let such a grand occasion end.
We hope that you men who missed a wonderful time because you didn't get the word, thought it was just for sissies, or wanted to see how much money you could waste uptown, won't make the same mistake again. The same sponsors are going to give a theater party followed by a dance for the WASHINGTON crew on Sunday, November 16, so keep that date open, fellers, and get in the game.